wisdom teeth removal





Dental Deaths

The information presented on this site is of personal opinion and consequently is slanted and biased and not based on proper scientific research. The information presented is NOT written by a dental expert. Further the information presented has NOT been subjected to peer review by experts to verify accuracy and data integrity.

Below you will find cases where both adults and children died as a result of seeing a dentist to have dental treatment performed at a dental office. All of these dental deaths are for procedures occuring that did not involve removing a wisdom tooth or wisdom teeth. If you are interested in wisdom teeth removal deaths refer to the death from wisdom teeth removal page.

Note that the owner of this website does not like having this page. His heart goes out to all the families.

This website's owner's calculations based on literature is roughly 1 death occurs in every 400,000 cases where anesthesia is used in dental offices. [48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 159] See the mortality rates in dentistry page for a description of how this figure was determined.

A study published in Pediatrics in 2000 found that a disproportionately large number of adverse sedation events in pediatrics (defined as under 20 years old in study) occur with dental treatment when compared to other medical specialties. In addition, a significantly higher proportion of those children who experienced an adverse sedation event in a nonhospital facility (such as a dental practice or dental office) suffered death or permanent neurological injury when compared to a hospital. [106, 107] See the blog post, The Single Operator Model of Sedation Leads to Caleb’s Law for some further comments on these studies.

A study published in Pediatrics in 2011 found no differences for major complications among different pediatric specialists and stated pediatric procedural sedation performed outside the operating room is unlikely to yield serious adverse outcomes. [164] This study is discussed more in a blog post, see Adverse Sedation Events and Impact on Provider Specialty in Pediatrics.

The United Kingdom (U.K.) Department of Health found that in England a total of 178 deaths were found to have occured where general anesthesia was used with dental treatment during the years 1965 to 1999. This included 95 deaths at a dental practice and 65 deaths at a hospital. Of the 178 deaths, 55 of them were children either under 15 years old (1965 to 1981) or under 16 years old (1982 to 1999). As of January 1, 2002, general anesthesia is no longer given at dental practices in the U.K and only available in a hospital setting. [70, 72]

A total of around 200 dental deaths are described currently on this website on both this dental deaths page and the death from wisdom teeth removal page. If a patient has a dental procedure and goes home and later dies a few days or few weeks later it is not always clear if it should be classified as a dental death. Hence some of the cases presented are debatable as to whether they should be a dental death or not, although still important to be aware of. Some cases are vague and provide few details which can make a proper assessment difficult. Most of the cases presented have the procedure occur in a dental practice but some have the procedure occur in a hospital. [51]

All of the cases do not take into account all of the grief and pain suffered by family members and friends. Nor do they account for in some cases the patient failing to properly take care of their teeth and gums. In some of these cases the patient had an underlying medical condition of which they either did not know about or failed to tell their dentist and/or doctors about. In a few cases the patient failed to tell their dentist and/or doctors about a medication they were taking. In a few of the oldest cases the patient received alphaprodine (nisentil) which is no longer manufactured. In a few older cases the patient received the general anaesthetic halothane which in developed countries has largely been replaced by newer inhalational anaesthetic agents such as sevoflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane. Drug-drug interactions particularly with nitrous oxide may have contributed to death in some cases. There is clear negligence in some cases particularly with inadequate monitoring of the patient, faulty and/or mixing up nitrous oxide and oxygen gas lines, allowing a patient to suffocate on a cotton roll/ gauze pad, giving an overdose and lethal amount of medication, not understanding the pharmacology of the drugs administered, and failing to properly account for the patient's underlying medical condition(s). In a few cases, particulary with pediatric patients, but certainly possible with handicapped patients, placing them in a restraint such as a papoose board was a major contributor towards death. In a few cases, anaphylactic shock (an allergic reaction) occured. [106, 137]

If you are looking for videos describing some of the deaths below go to the dental death videos page.

Pediatric Dental Deaths (under 18 years old)

A 3 year old girl visited the dentist to have four root canals and ten cavities filled but stopped breathing and was left brain dead. She was given the maximum dosage of 5 different drugs. This occured in Kailua, Hawaii. [165]

A 3 year old boy visited the dentist to have cavities fixed and was restrained in a papoose board to limit his movement when a local anesthetic was administered. He stopped breathing and later was found dead. This occured in February 2012, in New Jersey. [161]

A 4 year old boy visisted the dentist to remove rotten teeth and cap some others. He died after having been giving an oral anesthestic. He was born with a hole in the heart which required surgery. This occured in November 2011, in California. [160]

A 17 year old man developed sepsis and died after having a root canal performed on a tooth which had lost a filling after he eat a piece of caramel. This occured in February 2011, in Illinois. [143]

A 13 year old girl died while having her dentist remove two baby teeth and uncover an impacted tooth. She was given propofol, remifentanil, ketamine, and Versed. This occured in December 2010, in Ohio, and was due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy due to respiratory arrest (lack of oxygen to the brain) following the administration of anesthesia. In a settlement, her parents each receieved $331,056 and the attorney received $322,000. [1, 63, 157]

A 4 year old female died in August 2010, while undergoing dental work in Oklahoma. Her death is believed to be linked to the sedation given. [33]

A 5 year old boy died while having two fillings shortly before he was to begin school. After the fillings were complete he had a seizure and was taken to a hospital and died. This occured in July 2010 in Georgia. [34]

A 6 year old boy died in Virginia when he was having several teeth capped. He suffered an irregular heart beat while having his breathing tube removed after having been given anesthesia. This occured in May, 2010, and the state medical examiner official listed the cause of death as "cardiac dysrhythmia due to endotracheal extubation". [2]

A 5 year old boy died while having 4 cavities and 8 caps put in Florida. This occured in April 2010. He was sedated with chloral hydrate and then went into cardiac arrest. [16, 17, 158]

A 22 month year old boy stopped breathing several hours after having been sent home with his grandmother after having his teeth capped in December 2009. He was then hospitalized but his heart stopped, his lungs collapsed, and he became brain dead. He was taken off a ventilator and died two weeks later. He was given two 0.5 mg doses of morphine intravenously which had been approved by an anesthesiologist. [20, 21]

A 15 year old boy had four teeth removed in Seattle. He was austic and could not tolerate swallowing medication so he was given a 100 mc/hr Fentanyl patch which he took that night to help him sleep and for pain. He did not wake up due to Fentanyl intoxication and died in March 2009. [100, 101]

A 9 year old boy died as a result of choking on his own vomit after having been given anesthesia while undergoing dental work. He was given diazepam and ketamine. This occured in Febuary 2009. [18, 19]

A 17 year old female died in January 2009, while undergoing dental work. She had a reaction to the local anesthetic 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine given to numb her gums. [31]

A 7 year old female died after inhaling her own infected tooth which was being extracted. This left her brain dead and she was later taken off life support. This occured in March, 2008. [22, 23]

A 5 year old female choked on a cotton roll which had fell down her throat and was left brain dead while under sedation to have a tooth pulled. She was given nitrous oxide, vistaril, and valium. She vomitted twice and threw up 1/3 of the medication given. When the dentist treating her, was reaching for a hand bur during the treatment, one of the cotton rolls fell down her throat and 911 was called after attempts to revive her failed. She was then taken off life support and died in June, 2007. [24, 25]

A 2 year old girl died in June 2007 after choking on dental cotton while having a broken tooth fixed in Japan. [99]

An 8 year old girl died in March 2007 while having her teeth cleaned and calcium deposits removed. She was given 1300 mg of chloral hydrate, 30 mg of hydroxyzine, and nitrous oxide. She went into cardiac arrest while under sedation and died roughly 90 minutes after being taken to a hospital. An autopsy showed that she had a blood concentration of 24 mg/L of chloral hydrate which is three times the average given. [26, 27, 28, 29]

A 6 year old female died while having two cavities filled and caps placed on her lower front teeth. She died from oversedation as she was given three times the amount of Valium she should have received for her size. This occured in October, 2006, and her family was awarded a $1 million settlement. [11]

A 2 year old female died while having a few cracks repaired in her baby teeth while in Texas. She died from an overdose of Mepivicaine. This occured in October, 2006. [14, 15, 5]

A 10 year old female died while having a tooth pulled after receiving nitrous oxide. She was was born with Treacher Collins syndrome, a rare condition that restricts the airway and ability to breathe. However, she had been breathing on her own for two months prior to the extraction. This occured in March, 2006. [13]

A 4 year old man died in 2006, while at a dental clinic in Phoenix, Arizona, from an overdose of anesthetic while strapped to a papoose board. [30]

A 4 year old girl died of a possible allergic reaction to a drug given in September, 2005, while in California. [145, 146]

A 3 year old boy died while having crowns placed on his decaying teeth by his dentist. The boy managed to knock out a tooth after he became aroused from a Septocaine injection (local anesthestic) and which caused the dentist to place a mouth prop in his mouth. A 4 by 4 piece of gauze was placed by the dentist in his mouth to dry blood from tooth. The dentist then used the Hand over Mouth and Nose technique taught in dental schools prior to 1988 in which a dentist gently covers an uncooperative child's mouth and nose. The Coroner's report indicated the cause of death as "anoxic encephalopathy due to asphyxia by combined smothering and gagging on gauze pad during dental procedure." This occured in June 21, 2005. [3, 4 5]

A 2 year old boy died in January 2005, while having four rotten front teeth replaced by crowns. He was given midazolam and nitrous oxide by his dentist. This occured in Israel. [42]

A 2 year old boy died after receiving 3 times the recommended dose of prilocaine while having 11 rotted teeth extracted in October, 2004. He was in Ohio. [94, 95]

A 6 year old girl died in 2004 in New Jersey after having dental work done while being given anesthesia and placed in a papoose board. She suffered from cerebral palsy. [161]

A 6 year old girl who had periodontitis of a baby tooth had it extracted and was given 2 ml of 2% lidocaine. She developed vision problems, cramps, vomiting, and unconsciousness after a few minutes. Treatment was attempted and she died 16 hours later. An autopsy performed showed swelling of her brain and lungs, multiple small hemmorrhages of her heart and lungs, and also a partially collapsed lung. She had a toxic reaction to the lidocaine. This seemed to have occured in Latvia sometime in the early 2000's. [139]

A 3 year old boy died in September 1999, while having filings of cavities on 4 teeth performed in California. He was given a medication an hour before which lead to his death. [90, 91, 92]

A 5 year old girl died in August 1999, after having a baby tooth removed while under general anesthesia in the UK. The dentist failed to ensure an oxygen warning system was fitted to the anesthetic machine and failed to monitor her heart rate. It was found after her passing that she had a heart defect but it is not clear if this contributed to her death. [39, 40, 41]

A 16 year old man went into a coma after a dental procedure in May 1999, and died a week later in California. [93]

A 10 year old boy, had a tooth extracted in Scotland. His anesthesiologist had his dentist administer a local anaesthetic containing epinephrine even though the boy was already under the anaesthetic halothane which is known to potentially cause cardiac arrhythmia if interacting with epinephrine. The boy suffered a cardiac arrest and died on his way to a hospital. This occured in October 1998. The family settled an undisclosed compensation agreement 6 years after. [35, 36, 37, 38]

A 5 year old boy went to get four fillings and have two baby teeth removed at in the UK in September 1998. He was given general anesthesia and went in to cardiac arrest and suffered brain damage. He was first admitted to a hospital and later died at home more than a month after the dental work in October 1998. He was later found to have a rare muscle disorder called muscle myopathy which may have contributed to the death. However, it was found that the anesthesiologist gave him electric shocks 5 times greater than what should have been given. [43, 44, 45]

A 14 year old woman received general anesthesia while having a baby tooth removed in the U.K. He suffocated and died in October, 1997, as a result of receiving nitrous oxide instead of oxygen as the tubes were mixed up. [70, 71]

A 12 year old girl died less than 6 hours after having a lower tooth extracted in September 19, 1997, in New York. She was given 5 mg valium, 5 mg lidocaine, and 30 mg brevitol. [144]

A 4 year old boy died in August, 1997, while his dentist was filling his teeth. The coroner found the death to be due to "positional asphyxiation" or inability to breathe because of position. The boy was strapped to a papoose board used to restrain squirming children and his airway did not remain open. [10]

A 7 year old boy went into respiratory arrest, was airlifted to a hospital, and removed from life support 3 days later in March, 1997, while having two teeth removed by in Illinois. His parents won roughly $4.5 in a wrongful-death settlement. [86, 87]

A three year old girl died after receiving choloral hydrate and nitrous oxide while having a root canal done in July 1996. She was in Georgia. [82, 83]

A 5 year old boy died after having cavities filled in June 1996. He stopped breathing while under general anesthesia. [12]

A 3 year old boy suffered a heart attack and died while under anesthesia to have a few cavities filled. The dentist failed to bring necessary monitoring equipment to the dental office. This occured in May 1996. [8, 9]

A 10 year old female broke two front teeth at her school's playground and was taken by her mother to get treatment. She was given general anesthesia her heart rate dropped. She was taken to a hospital but pronounced dead on arrival. This occured in January 1996 in the UK. [46, 47]

A 3 year old girl died in January 1995, while having 5 cavities filled while in Georgia. She had previously been hospitalized twice for reactive airway disease and took Rynatan for a cold which was not disclosed to the dentist. She was given chloral hydrate, nitrous oxide, and lethal amount 2% lidocaine with epineprhine. [78, 79, 80, 82, 84, 85]

A 6 year old went into a coma in 1993, while having a tooth pulled under anesthesia. He was given Halothane and nitrous oxide. [163]

A 13 year old boy had four baby teeth pulled in November, 1990, in New York. He was given chloral hydrate and began vomitting shorty after which lead to his death. He had known heart disease, asthama, and high cholesterol which was not told to the dentist at the time of treatment. [74]

An 8 year old female, died while having 8 baby teeth pulled in August, 1989. She was given an overdose of mepivacaine and suffered from seizures before her heart stopped. Her family received a $350,000 settlement from the dentist's insurance company. This occured in Florida. [75, 76]

A 16 year old male had implant surgery under general anesthesia (2% halothane) to replace two left mandibular teeth in June 1987. During surgery he began to look pale and cynanotic and taken to a hospital. He suffered cardiac arrest and subcutaneous emphysema and died. A dental drill used during surgery had likely produced an air embolism. [59]

A 2 year old boy suffered trouble breathing 4 1/2 hours while in the recovery room after having a tooth extraction and filling done. He had received pentothal, nitrous oxide, ketamine, and valium. He later went into cardiac arrest while being rushed to a hospital and died. This occured in June 1986 in New York. [102]

A 3 year old boy suffered cardiac arrest and died a few hours after having chloral hydrate during a dental appointment. He received 4 to 5 teaspoons of choloral hydrate and the local anesthetics lidocaine and carbocaine. This occured in June 1985 in Cleveland, Ohio. [111]

A 17 year old male had a tooth removed in the mid-1980s in California. He was given 40 mg of brevital and 10 mg of valium. During the procedure he began to vomit and bring up lumps of food. He later died at a hospital and it was revealed that he had lied to the surgeon prior to the tooth removal about not eating any food within 6 hours prior. In fact he had just come from eating a lot of food at a restaurant. [140]

A 3 year old boy suffered a heart attack and went into a coma in April 1984, under anesthesia while having treatment done on several teeth. He died a month later. This occured in Vernon, California. [105]

A 4 year old girl died in May 1983, after going into convulsions and subsequently suffering a heart attack shortly after receiving anesthesia, specifically mepivacaine (carbocaine) while having fillings put in her teeth. She was in Pennslyvania. She suffered from heart inflammation and had a clinical history of convulsions during local anesthetic. [103, 104]

A 10 year old girl died after suffering cardiac arrest after having been given a general anesthestic while having two teeth extracted. This occured in January 1981 in Scotland. [108]

A 3 year old boy died from cardiac arrest while having teeth extractions done. He was given halothane, nitrous oxide, oxygen, followed by 0.3 mg atropine, and 25 mg suxamethonium. This occured sometine between 1980 and 1989 in England or Wales. [142]

A 10 year old girl died while having tooth extractions done while under general anesthesia. She suffered from physical and mental disabilities. [38]

A 4 year old girl suffered respiratory arrest after having been given prodine (nisentil) while receiving treatment for some severely decayed teeth. She died 11 days later and this occured in November, 1978. [124]

A 9 year old died of a heart attack likely due to anesthesia given in 1975, while in Florida. [112]

A 10 year old boy suffered cardiac arrest and brain damage while under general anesthesia to remove 9 teeth. He died three days later and this occured in September, 1974, in Canada. It appears he was given nitrous oxide and trichloroethene (trilene) which has not been used as an anesthetic since the 1980s. [116, 117]

A 3 year old boy had a spread of stannous flouride solution in the form of a jell applied to his teeth as a preventative measure. The hygenist allowed him to swallow the flouride, he was later taken to a hospital, went in to a coma, and then died. This occured in May 1974, and his family recieved $750,000. [125]

A 15 year old woman died of brain damage 14 hours after her oxygen and nitrous oxide lines had been switched on her dentist's anesthesia machine. This occured in March, 1974 in Canada. [121]

A 5 year old girl died when having a tooth extracted because she inhaled her own tooth under local anesthesia when it mistakenly left the dentist's forceps. This occured sometime in the late 1960s or early 1970s. [73]

A total of 59 pediatric deaths are described above.

dental tools

This photo is from http://www.flickr.com/photos/jericho_is_unruly/4554956414/ and is being used with permission.

Adult Dental Deaths

An 18 year old man developed Ludwig's angina after having a root canal which lead to his death. He was on his college football team. This occured in Oklahoma in October, 2011. [162]

A 30 year old woman suffered an anaphylactic shock (allergic reaction) triggered from mouthwash (containing chlorhexidine) while having her teen cleaned at the dentist. This occured in the UK in March, 2011. [148]

A 45 year old female, had a severe toothache and gum swelling and had her tooth pulled. Soon after she deteriorated and died. She did have diabetes and hypertension. This occured in May, 2010, in Bangladesh. [136]

A 63 year old man suffered anaphylactic shock which induced a cardiac arrest after having received chlorhexidine (which is an antibacterial solution in mouthwash) to wash his tooth socket. He was suffering from toothache from a tooth extraction several weeks before. He died in a hospital four weeks later in October, 2009. This occured in the U.K. [153, 154]

A 33 year old woman went into respiratory arrest and suffered brain damage after having her teeth extracted in July 2009. She died three months later and the painkiller fentanyl given was a contributing factor. She suffered from cerebral palsy. [98]

A 20 year old man suffered a massive allergic reaction to antibiotics during surgery to correct his jaw alignment. He then went in to anaphylactic shock, suffered severe brain damage, and died in July, 2008. [60]

A 38 year old female died in bed after spitting up blood for several hours after having three teeth extracted in 2008 in the U.K. Her blood failed to clot as she had severe cirrhosis of her liver. [151]

A 46 year old female suffered cardiac arrest and died while having a root canal. The family was awarded a $8.5 million settlement. [6,7]

A 70 year old man had palate surgery in August 2007. He went home after the surgery and started to bleed and took blood into his lungs. He was put on a ventilator two days after surgery and died several weeks later in September, 2007. [61]

A 62 year old man went into cardiac arrest in June 2007, while having some teeth extracted to prepare for dentures.. He was put under general anesthesia, suffered brain damage, and died 5 days later. [57]

A 47 year old man died in March 2007, shortly after having some teeth extracted and getting dental implants. He was given 2 mg of Halcion which is 4 times the maximum recommended dose. He went into cardiac arrest while recovering at the dental office, was taken to a hospital and became brain-dead. He was on life support for a day before being removed. [32]

A 90 year old man went to a dentist in 2006, for implants to secure his dentures. The dentist's assistant dropped a small screwdriver down his throat and he later had to have it removed from his large intestine. The man again went to see the dentist for implants in May, 2007. This time a torque wrench fell down his throat. He was hospitalized for 50 days and died in June, 2007. This occured in Florida. The dentist was allowed to keep his dental license since it was ruled an accident. [131, 132] Later the dentist turned his dental license in in May 2011, when the Florida Board of Dentistry recommended his license be revoked. [152]

An 89 year old woman died having having teeth pulled in preparation for dentures after being sedated. This occured in September, 2005. [57]

A 73 year old man sufered from difficulty breathing after receiving intravenous sedation while having a tooth pulled in June 2004. He went into cardiac arrest and respiratory arrest and died. His family was awarded $1.135 million in a lawsuit. [97]

A 67 year old man went to see a dentist for dental implant surgery in November 2002. He suffered brain damage and died 2 days later after having experience loss of oxygen in his blood while under intravenous sedation. He was given midazolam and propofol. His cause of death was ruled "hypoxic brain damage sustained during a dental procedure". He was overweight, had a history of alcohol abuse, and had a recent heart examination which had him on medication to increase his bleeding which he failed to tell his dentist. This occured in Australia. [133, 134, 135]

A 70 year old women with gestational diabets had 6 teeth removed while under 2.5 mg midazolam, 0.05 mg fentanyl, and 20 mg methohexital. She left the office without complaints and went into cardiac arrest and died 30 hours later. This occured in Massachusetts sometime between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004. [51]

A 77 year old women with a history of congestive heart failure had 12 teeth extracted due to periodontal disease and cavities. She was given 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and also 3% mepivacaine. She developed congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema and died roughly 48 hours later. This occured in Massachusetts sometime between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004. [51]

A 30 year old man had four teeth roots extracted. Before the extraction he was given atropine and during he had general anesthesia with intravenous ketamine and tramadol. He had bronchial astham, congenital stenoses of aortical apertura and coarctation of aorta. He quickly developed symptoms and was brain dead within an hour and died. This seemed to have occured in Latvia sometime in the early 2000's. [139]

A 55 year old woman stopped breathing and went into cardiopulmonary arrest while receiving dental implants. She went into a coma and died 6 days later when the life support system she was put on was turned off. This occured in June 2000. [156]

A 56 year old woman suffered a heart attack and died while in a hospital six days after having been given general anesthesia for a minor dental procedure in March, 1999. [68, 69, 70]

A woman in her mid 70s had multiple extractions performed in 1998. She developed respiratory problems and went into cardiac arrest and died 5 days later. [52]

A 57 year old woman died while having her dentist remove six teeth. She suffered a reaction to halothane and had a fatal cardiac arrhythmia. This occured in October, 1997, and her family settled a suit for $550,000. [1]

A 27 year old woman died several days after having a tooth extracted in Virginia in March, 1997. She was given Xanax, an anti-anxiety medicine, intended to ease her fear of dental treatment and ended up taking 8 or 9 Xanax much more than the maximum dose along with a medication containing a narcotic. The dentist was not aware she had taken so much Xanax and had written a prescription to take 1 or 2 1mg Xanax an hour before surgery.The dentist was performing the extraction for free as a service to a fellow church member. [150]

A 50 year old who had a previous cardiac condition had multiple teeth removed. He went into cardiac arrest in the dental office and was resuscitated. However, he died 3 weeks later. This occured in Illinois in 1996. [54]

A 50 year old had a heart attack after having teeth removed while under general anesthesia. He did have a undislcosed at the time of surgery heart attack 2 years prior and had sustained severe cardiac muscle damage. This occured in Illinois sometime between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2005. [55]

A patient had a heart attack while having teeth removed while under general anesthesia. The patient died 5 days later. This occured in Illinois sometime between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2005. [55]

A 32 year old man suffered a cardiac arrest 2 days after having surgery to correct his jaw in May 1995. This left him in a persistent vegative state and he died roughly 6 months later in November 1995, from bronchopneumonia. He was overweight when he had the surgery and this occured in the U.K. [88, 89]

A 41 year old woman died after routine dental work in March 1994. He was in Ohio. [81]

A man had a dentist extract his upper molar that was bothering him in February 1994. He had diabetes and developed inflammation which led to his death 12 days later. [128]

A 23 year old man was throwing up blood and urinating blood after having teeth extracted at a low income dental clinic. He was on penicillin and Tylenol with codeine. His family did not have a car and paramedics were called twice but they decided his condition was not life threatening so he never made it to the hospital and died a week after the extractions. This occured in November 1993, in Texas. [155]

A 25 year old man had a tooth removed in November, 1990, and died at home nine hours later. He suffered from Down's syndrome and was given lorazepam, midazolam, diazepam, and morphine during the extraction and later naloxone during recovery. He was in Canada. [52, 77]

A 45 year old man died in August 1989, after receiving an overdose of sedatives while having gum surgery in Texas. [149]

A woman died after having dental implanty surgery in Washington, in December, 1987. She was given midazolam. Her family received a 6 figure out of court settlement. [58]

A man in his early 30s died in his sleep after having reconstructive dentistry and extractions performed in 1987. He did have a long medical history that included asthma, smoking, obesity, disabilities, havy fever, hypertension, thyroid disease, heart disease, and shortness of breath. He was given diazepam and meperidine. [52]

A 48 year old women had implant surgery to replace a mandibular denture in September 17, 1987. She was given intravenous sedation in the from of diazepam and methohexitone. She was given local anesthesia in the form of 2% mepivacaine with levonordefrin. Roughly 50 minutes into surgery she became cyanotic. She was taken to a hospital and suffered cardiac arrest. Her death was found to be due to "irreversible cerebral anoxic changes and diffuse myocardial necrosis due to prolonged cardiac arrest." A dental drill used during surgery had likely produced an air embolism. [59]

A 50 year old man had implant surgery to replace a mandibular denture in November, 1986. He was given general anesthesia (halothane) and during surgery become cyanotic. He suffered cardiac arrest and taken to a hospital. He died three days later and autopsy showed acute puruletn bronchitis, early bronchopneumonia, and liver enlargement. A dental drill used during surgery had likely produced an air embolism. [59]

A 70 year old woman died 18 hours after having 3 teeth extracted with 3% mepivacaine. She left the office without complaints and had had a heart attack 5 months prior. This occured in Massachusetts sometime between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 1989. [48]

A 63 year old man was given 30 mg talwin, 7.5 mg valium, 3% mepivacaine, and 50 mg of brevital. He began to experience chest pain 20 minutes into having a tooth removed in the mid-1980s in California. He became unconscious, was transfered to a hospital, and was prounced dead on arrival. An autopsy showed that he had severe coronary artery disease, significant narrowing of the left coronary aftery, and a scar. After his death it was learned from his daughter he had severe chest pain 2 weeks prior to the extraction. [140]

A 65 year old woman with known coronary artery disease had a tooth extracted while under local anesthesia. She suffered from myocardial infarction around 24 hours later and died. This occured in the mid-1980s in California. [140]

A 22 year old woman suffered a heart attack and died in May 1983, while having 11 teeth extracted and dentures fitted. She was obese and this occured in Scotland (U.K.). [110]

A 29 year old man died while having 27 teeth pulled in prepartion for dentures. This occured in September 1982, in Pennsylvania, and he was given a lethal dose of lidocaine (3.33 mg per 100 cubic cm of blood at autopsy). [109]

A 23 year old woman died wheile having ten teeth taken out while under general anesthesia. This occured in June, 1982, in Scotland. (U.K.) [113]

A 39 year old man visited a dentist in March, 1980, due to a toothache. He had the tooth extracted and returned 2 days later with a swollen jaw. He died 9 days after the tooth extraction due to the infection. [114]

A 29 year old woman became ill 5 days after a dental procedure in which she was given the general anesthesia halothane. She subsequently died 2 days after becoming ill from hepatic necrosis. It was noted that she had been regularily receiving paracetamol for 1 year to treat her back pain. This occured sometine between 1980 and 1989 in England or Wales. [142]

A 32 year old man having dental work performed at a hospital, was given suxamethonium, thiopentone, nitrous oxide, oxygen, and halothane. He became cyanotic and unable to breathe. He suffered two cardiac arrests and delayed the next day. It was likely he had an adverse reaction to the drugs he was given (likely suxamethonium). This occured sometine between 1980 and 1989 in England or Wales. [142]

A 65 year old with rheumatic heart disease had a loose tooth extracted. After standing for a few minutes the patient collapsed and died which was at autopsy determined to be due to severe cardiovascular pathology. This occured sometine between 1980 and 1989 in England or Wales. [142]

A 25 year old man having a tooth restored was given diazepam and what was thought to be methohexitone. In fact, the methohexitone was unknowingly mixed with halothane. This caused the man to collapse and died. This occured sometine between 1980 and 1989 in England or Wales. [142]

A 23 year old man with spastic diplegia, scoliosis and epilepsy was given 9 mg etomidate, phenytoin, 10 mg gallamine, nitrous oxide, and oxygen while having dental work done at a hospital. He became cyanotic and unable to breathe. He suffered cardiac arrest and likely died due to airway obstruction. This occured sometine between 1980 and 1989 in England or Wales. [142]

A 25 year old man had a tooth pulled in October, 1977. Three days later his jaw began to swell and he developed a fever. He went to a hospital, went into a coma, and died two weeks later. His family won over $1.6 million in damages. [115]

A 22 year old woman died under general anesthesia while having 7 teeth extracted. She collapsed, went into cardiac arrest, was rushed to a hospital, and died 2 hours later. She was apprehensive about the teeth extractions. This occured in May 1977 in Scotland (U.K.). [122, 123]

A 21 year old man died in October, 1974, an hour after being given general anesthesia to have a tooth removed. [120]

A 52 year old man died after a choking to death when a sponge dropped into his trachea while having 11 teeth pulled and being fitted for upper and lower plates. This occured in 1974 and his family won $400,000. [118]

A 43 year old woman died when her vocal cords expanded which affected her breathing while under general anesthesia to have all her upper teeth extracted, in September, 1973, in Canada. She was given oxygen, nitrous oxide, and trichloroethene (trilene) which has not been used as an anesthetic since the 1980s. [116, 117]

A 28 year old woman died while having 11 teeth extracted while under general anesthesia in October, 1972. He died from choking on his own blood (asphyxiation). His family was awarded $131,413 in damages. [119, 127]

A 36 year old man died after having his lower right first and second molars extracted in September, 1963, in India. He developed swelling, a high temperature, paresis of nerves, and neck rigidity. He later had seizures and went into a coma and died 25 days after the extractions due to developing cavernous sinus thrombosis and septicemia. [147]

A 30 year old woman had a tooth extracted under local anesthesia (lidocaine with epineprine) and developed a lump in her throat thirty hours later. She later went to bed and awake with a feeling of tightness in her throat. She then went to the hopsital but died of asphyxiation 41 hours after having the tooth removed caused by laryngeal edema. She had a known immume disorder (hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency) which put her at risk for facial swelling and life threatening laryngeal edema after dental surgery. [129]

A 27 year old woman developed lip swelling, tongue swelling, throat swelling, severe dyspnea, and a hoarse voice over 4 hours after a tooth extraction. She was taken to an emergency room where she died of asphyxiation due to laryngeal edema. She had hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency which had not been diagnosed prior to the exraction which put her at risk for facial swelling and life threatening laryngeal edema after tooth removal. [129]

A 46 year old man had a tooth extracted under local anesthesia and awoke from bed 7 hours later with a lump in his throat and difficulty swallowing. His voice then became hoarse and later lost his voice. He died roughly 13 hours after the extraction due to asphyxiation before an emergency physician saw him. He had hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency which had not been diagnosed prior to the exraction which put him at risk for facial swelling and life threatening laryngeal edema after removing a tooth. [129]

A 32 year old woman had a tooth extracted and began to develop facial swelling nine hours later. 16 hours after the extraction she died of asphyxiation due to laryngeal edema. She had hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency which had not been diagnosed prior to the exraction which put her at risk for facial swelling and life threatening laryngeal edema after a tooth extraction. [129]

A total of 59 adult deaths are described above.

Updated Oct. 14, 2019

1. The Chronicle-Telegram. Court records show dentist settled wrongful death lawsuit in 1997. January 8, 2011.
2. Andy Jenks. NBC 12. Death of boy at VCU dental clinic was due to natural causes. June 28, 2010.
3. KCRA. Child's Dental Chair Death Ruled Homicide. Civil Lawsuit Settled with Parents. January 11-12, 2006.
4. Attorneys for Complainant Accusation Against William Nielsen. http://dentistthemenace.com/documents/drwilliamnielsen1.pdf
5. Dentist the Menance. Children Killed at the Dentist. http://dentistthemenace.com/deathbythedentist.htm February 19, 2011.
6. ABC 7. Principle dies during root canal surgery. December 18, 2007.
7. The Chicago-Sun Times. Multi-Million Dollar Settlement In Dental Office Death. August 13, 2008.
8. David Kohn. CBS 60 Minutes. A Deadly Trip To The Dentist: Is Sedation Too Risky? http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/1999/01/19/60II/main29175.shtml Accessed January 10, 2011.
9. The Times/ Beaver Newspapers, Inc. Surgeon Charged in 3 year old patient's death. July 2, 1996. A8.
10. Mai Tran. The Orange County Register. BOY'S DEATH HAUNTS DENTIST // MEDICINE: Facing a manslaughter charge and a possible license suspension, she says she has prayed for the child's forgiveness. December 19, 1998. B01.
11. Michael Higgins. Chicago Tribune. Dentist, family settle for $1 million; 5-year-old girl died of oversedation. July 18, 2007. 6.
12. Marshall Wilson. San Francisco Chronicle. Burlingame Oral Surgeon Surrenders License / 5-year-old boy died after visit to office. April 14, 1998. A13.
13. Bob LaMendola. SunSentinel. Girl's death in dentist chair sparks inquiry. December 06, 2006. http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2006-12-06/news/0612050497_1_dentists-dental-office-prosecutors Accessed January 11, 2011.
14. Child's Death At Dentist Ruled Accidental. March 28, 2007. click2houston.com
15. Toddler Dies After Trip to Dentist. October 12, 2006. click2houston.com
16. Karen Voyles. Boy's death during dental work under investigation. April 27 -28, 2010. http://www.gainesville.com/article/20100428/ARTICLES/4281011?p=1&tc=pg Accessed January 11, 2011.
17. WCJB 20. Family Mourns Death of Cedar Key Boy. April 26, 2010.
18. Donna Domino. Are pediatric sedation deaths on the rise? May 18, 2010. http://www.drbicuspid.com/index.aspx?sec=nws&sub=rad&pag=dis&ItemId=304662 Accessed January 11, 2011.
19. Mary Jo Melone. Health News Florida. 2 kids die in dental chair; why? May 5, 2010.
20. Eva Ruth Moravec. Parents sue over death of their son. May 4, 2010. http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/local_news/article/Parents-sue-over-death-of-their-son-787905.php Accessed January 11, 2011.
21. Doc's lawyer says morphine 'within limits'. December 29, 2009. http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/local_news/article/Doc-s-lawyer-says-morphine-within-limits-627676.php Accessed January 11, 2011.
22. Lora Hines and John Asbury. Riverside girl, 7, dies days after choking on tooth. March 11, 2008. pe.com
23. Miriam Hernandez. Young girl dies during dental procedure. March 10, 2008. KABC.
24. Miriam Hernandez. Dad sues after dental visit kills girl. March 13, 2008. KABC.
25. Attorneys for Complainant Accusation Against Julie Tsai. http://dentistthemenace.com/documents/juliatsaiboardaction.pdf
26. Raven Maria Blanco Foundation, Inc. 2011.
27. Raven Maria Blanco Foundation, Inc. 2011.
28. Patrick Terpstra. WVEC. Chesapeake man takes on dentistry laws after daughter's death. June 9, 2010.
29. Donna Domino. 8-year-old's sedation death spurs dad's effort to change laws. June 17, 2010. http://www.drbicuspid.com/index.aspx?sec=nws&sub=rad&pag=dis&ItemId=304905&wf=37 Accessed January 11, 2011.
30. Deborah Sherman. written by Nicole Vap. KUSA-TV. 9NEWS Investigation, Part I: Children injured at Medicaid dental clinics 2006.
31. Kim Vallez. KRQE 13. January 15, 2009. Girls dies during dental work: Cause of death not known.
32. Kelly Wiese. December 7, 2009. Woman settles wrongful death case against dentist in St. Louis County Circuit Court. dolanmedia.com
33. Kim Archer. Police, dental officials look into child's death. August 21, 2010. Modified August 26, 2010. tulsaworld.com
34. FOX 5. July 12, 2010. 5-year-old Atlanta Child Dies After Dental Visit.
35. Kevin Hurley. Scotland On Sunday. August 29, 2004. Dentist tragedy parents strike deal.
36. Jeremy Laurance. The Independent. October 3, 2000. Doctor cleaned surgical appliance with his mouth. http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/doctor-cleaned-surgical-appliance-with-his-mouth-634245.html Accessed January 12, 2011.
37. Auslan Cramb. The Telegraph. October 10, 2001. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/1358962/Parents-sue-over-death-at-dentists.html Accessed January 12, 2011.
38. Jennifer S. Sherry. Child deaths from anesthesia: How the media reports dental tragedies. rdhmag.com
39. BBC News. Dental team cleared over girl's death. February 6, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/1156634.stm Accessed January 12, 2011.
40. Mark Sage. The Independent. Dental practice was warned before tragedy. November 14, 2002.
41. Matthew Beard. The Independent. Girl, 5, died after 'basic errors' at dentist. January 30, 2001.
42. Judy Siegel-Itzkovich. The Jerusalem Post. Dentist involved in boy's death to face hearing. August 20, 2006.
43. BBC News. Verdict on death in dentist's chair. November 26, 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/538046.stm Accessed January 12, 2011.
44. Nicole Martin. The Telegraph. Heart attack boy 'given excessive electric shocks'. January 15, 2002. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1381486/Heart-attack-boy-given-excessive-electric-shocks.html Accessed January 12, 2011.
45. BBC News. Errors led to boy's dental death. January 14, 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/1759875.stm Accessed January 12, 2011.
46. Jeremy Laurance. The Indepedent. Dentists to stop giving general anaesthetic. July 22, 2000. http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/dentists-to-stop-giving--general-anaesthetic-706184.html Accessed January 12, 2011.
47. Jeremy Laurance. The Indepedent. Doctor guilty after girl, 10, dies at dentist. June 13, 1998. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/doctor-guilty-after-girl-10-dies-at-dentist-1164552.html Accessed January 12, 2011.
48. Edward M. D'Eramo. Morbidity and Mortality With Outpatient Anesthesia: The Massachusetts Experience. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992. 50. page 700-704.
49. Edward M. D'Eramo. Mortality and Morbidity With Outpatient Anesthesia: The Massachusetts Experience. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999. 57. page 531-536.
50. Edward M. D'Eramo and et. al. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. Adverse Events with Outpatient Anesthesia In Massachusetts. 2003. vol 61. pages 793-800.
51. Edward M. D'Eramo and et. al. Anesthesia Morbidity and Mortality Experience Among Massachusetts Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008. 66. pages 2421-2433.
52. Peter J. Nkansha. and et. al. Mortality Incidence in Outpatient Anesthesia For Dentistry in Ontario. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1997. 83. pages 646-651.
53. Alan E. Deegan. Anesthesia Morbidity and Mortality, 1988-1999: Claims Statistics From AAOMS National Insurance Company. Anesth Prog. 2001. 48. pages 89-92.
54. William G. Flick and et. al. Illinois Dental Anesthesia and Sedation Survey for 1996. Anesth Prog. 1998. 45. pages 51-56.
55. William G. Flick and et. al. Illinois Dental Anesthesia and Sedation Survey for 2006. Anesth Prog. 2007. 54. pages 52-58.
56. David H. Perrott and et. al. Office-Based Ambulatory Anesthesia: Outcomes of Clinical Practice of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003. 61. pages 983-995.
57. Carol Smith. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Enough Scrutiny in Dental Deaths? July 15, 2008. http://www.seattlepi.com/local/370740_dentists15.html Accessed January 14, 2011.
58. Michelle Nicolosi. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. October 4, 2005.
59. J.M. Davies and Linda Campbell. Fatal Air Embolism During Dental Implant Surgery: A Report of Three Cases. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. January 1990. 37. 1. pages 112-121.
60. Carol Smith. Fifth dental death in 3 years: Student has allergic reaction to mediaction after oral surgery. July 23, 2008. http://www.seattlepi.com/local/371952_dentist24.html Accessed January 14, 2011.
61. Karen Dorn Steele. August 1, 2008. Spokane dentist faces another legal challenge.
62. Office of the Ombudsman for Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities. Medical Alert - Unexpected Deaths Following Recent Outpatient Dental Surgery. November, 2005.
63. Cindy Leise. The Chronicle-Telegram. Coroner: Lack of oxygen may have killed teen girl. January 6, 2011.
64. L.M. Worthington and et. al. Death in the dental chair: an avoidable catastrophe? British Journal of Anaesthesia. Volume 80. No. 2. February 1998.
65. C. Wells and D. Thomas. Deaths in the dental surgery: invididual and organisational criminal liability. British Dental Journal. Volume 204. No. 9. May 10, 2008.
66. J. Theodore Jastak and Robert M. Peskin. Major morbidity or mortality from office anesthetic procedures: a closed-claim analysis of 13 cases. Anesth Prog. vol. 38. pages 39-44. 1991.
67. Stanley F. Malamed and Paul Reggiardo. Pediatric Oral Conscious Sedation: Changes to Come. Journal of the California Dental Association. 1999.
68. BBC News. Dental death doctor escapes jail. February 22, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/1184520.stm Accessed January 15, 2011.
69. Lucy Sherriff. The Register. Phone-call dentist guilty of manslaughter. February 23, 2001. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2001/02/23/phonecall_dentist_guilty_of_manslaughter/ Accessed January 15, 2011.
70. D.P. Landes. The provision of general anaesthesia in dental practice, an end which had to come? British Dental Journal. Vol. 192. No. 3. pages 129-131. February 3, 2002.
71. The Birmingham Post. Doctor who killed boy with gas in dentist's chair is jailed. July 30, 1999.
72. A Conscious Decision: A review of the use of general anaesthesia and conscious sedation in primary dental care. London. Department of Health. July 2000.
73. Michael P. Coplans and Ivan Curson. Deaths Associated with General Dental Anaesthesia. British Medical Journal. page 109-110. January 13, 1973.
74. Roni Rabin. Newsday. Dentist Sues Medical Examiners Says `negligent' probe of boy's death ruined her career. February 6, 1992. page 03.
75. The Ledger. Dead girl's family settles with dentist. July 3, 1992. 8B.
76. Debbie Salamone. Orlando Sentinel. Death at Dentist's Office Unresolved Seminole Gril's Fatal Visit Haunts Mom, Investigators 1 year Later. July 22, 1990. B1.
77. Nicholas Keung. Toronto Star. Dentist hid his errors, review panel told. September 6, 2002. B05.
78. Bill Torpy. The Atlanta Constitution. Competitors behind drive to take away license, dentist says. March 11, 1995. C2.
79. Bill Torpy. The Atlanta Constitution. Tifton dentist denies guilt in death. August 23, 1995. C3
80. Bill Torpy. The Atlanta Constitution. Board suspends dentist's license after girl's death. January 31, 1995. B6.
81. Columbus Dispatch. Akron Man Dies Day After Dental Work. May 8, 1994. 03C.
82. Associated Press. Florida Times Union. Child dies in dentit's office. July 17, 1996. B1.
83. Florida Times Union. CoastLines [Georgia Edition]. July 18, 1996. B1.
84. Tim Wesselman. The Albany Herald. Grand jury indicts Tifton dentist. February 5, 1997. C.
85. Department of Law: State of Georgia. May 19, 1999. Former Tift County Dentist Pleads Guilty to Medicaid Fraud.
86. Amanda Vogt. Chicago Tribune. $4.5 Million Settlement in Boy's Death. August 18, 2000. 3.
87. Dave Newbart. Chicago Tribune. Gurnee EMTS Are Defended in Fatal Seizure Boy's Parents Also Sue Oral Surgeon. February 27, 1998. 1.
88. BBC News. Death inquiry dentist denies misconduct. December 7, 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/554506.stm Accessed January 15, 2011.
89. BBC News. Surgeon sacked by health trust. May 4, 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/736524.stm Accessed January 15, 2011.
90. Dong-Phuong Nguyen. The San Diego Union - Tribune. No indication procedure caused boy's death, dentist's lawery says. September 18, 1999. B2.
91. Dong-Phuong Nguyen. The San Diego Union - Tribune. 3 year old boy dies after dental procedure. Tot was given liquid pre-medication at home. September 17, 1999. B2.
92. Dong-Phuong Nguyen. The San Diego Union - Tribune. 3 year old's death due to prescribed medication, medical examiner says. November 20, 1999. B3.
93. San Jose Mercury News. Dental Patient Who had Slipped Into a Coma Dies. June 5, 1999. 2B.
94. The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. November 4, 2005. Ohio dentist loses license over death of 2-year-old. A12.
95. Denise Alex. WTAP News. Dentist Allegedly Caused a Child's Death. November 3, 2005.
96. Tom Raftery and Melissa Grace. New York Daily News. Day at Dentist Turns Deadly. April 11, 2004. 17.
97. Michael Higgins. Chicago Tribune. Dentist, family settle lawsuit. Man Died while having tooth pulled. June 20, 2007. 3.
98. Brendan Brosh. Daily News. Dentist disaster: Family sues after Bronx woman's teeth extraction takes deadly turn. February 9, 2010. http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2010/02/09/2010-02-09_family_sues_after_bx_womans_teeth_extraction_takes_a_deadly_turn_dentist_disaste.html Accessed January 15, 2011.
99. Japan Today. 2-year-old Saitama girl dies after choking on dental cotton. June 15, 2007.
100. Jennifer Sullivan. Seatle Times. Seattle Children's faces claim in teen's painkiller death September 29-30, 2010. <
101. Levi Pulkkinen. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Autistic teen's fatal overdose blamed on hospital. September 29, 2009. http://www.seattlepi.com/local/410605_childrens28.html Accessed January 15, 2011.
102. The Associated Press. Newsday. Queens Child Dies After Dental Work, Probe Under Way. June 7, 1986. 14.
103. The Youngstown Daily Vindicator. May 12, 1983. Girl, 4, Dies During Visit To Dentist. 4.
104. Beaver County Times. Inquest likely in dental death. May 27, 1983. A2.
105. Merced Sun-Star. Dentist and nurse charged. October 8, 1986. 3.
106. Charles J. Coté and et. al. Adverse Sedation Events in Pediatrics: Analysis of Medications Used for Sedation. Pediatrics. 106. pages 633-644. 2000.
107. Charles J. Coté and et. al. Adverse Sedation Events in Pediatrics: A Critical Incident Analysis of Contributing Factors. Pediatrics. 105. pages 805-814. 2000.
108. Evening Times. No Blame in Death of Schoolgirl. October 6, 1981. 8.
109. Post-Gazette. Dentist pleads guilty in patient's death. April 10, 1984. 8B.
110. Derek Douglas. Glasgow Herald. Obesity a cause of patient's death. February 7, 1984. 3.
111. The Bryan Times. Death accidental. June 22, 1985. 3.
112. Ocala Star-Banner. 17-Year-Old Boy Dies at Dentist's. April 25, 1984. 6C.
113. Dick Tempest. Evening Times. Tragedy at the Dentist's Probe. July 15, 1982. 4.
114. The Ledger. Dentist cleared in patient's fatal infection. April 10, 1983. 9B.
115. The Palm Beach Post. Doctors Claim Noo Fault in Death. January 25, 1981. B4.
116. Steve Kowch. The Montreal Gazette. Lack of oxygen killed patient, 10. September 26, 1974. 3.
117. Steve Kowch. The Montreal Gazette. Boy dies after anesthetic at the dentist's. September 25, 1974. 1.
118. The Bonham Daily Favorite. Family Wins Suit Against Dentist. November 7, 1979. 4.
119. The Leader-Post. Anesthetist and dentist found negligent. June 10, 1976. 4.
120. Janet Mackenzie. Dentists vetoed report urging office general-anesthestic ban. October 18, 1974. 1.
121. The Leader-Post. Gas lines switched. April 24, 1974. 53
122. The Glasgow Herald. Woman died after gas at dentist's. December 7, 1977. 3.
123. The Glasgow Herald. Did patient's fear help to kill her? December 8, 1977. 3.
124. Kentucky News Era. Dentist Probed In Girl's Death. August 11, 1979. 15.
125. St. Peterburg Times. $750,000 awarded after boy dies from fluoride treatment. January 20, 1979. 4A.
126. The Montreal Gazette. 3 anesthesia deaths prompt city network of dental clinics. November 16, 1974. 1.
127. The Phoenix. Court dismisses apped on $130,000 judgment. June 28, 1978. 20.
128. Ananthakrishnan G. Diabetes patient dies after tooth extraction. August 10, 2006. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/diabetes-patient-dies-after-tooth-extraction/10258/1 Accessed January 20, 2011.
129. Konrad Bork and Sven-Erik Barnstedt. Laryngeal edema and death from asphyxiation after tooth extraction in foru patients with hereditary angioedema. J Am Dent Assoc. 134. pages 1088-1094. 2003.
130. Robert Richard and Hugh M. Crombie. Familial angioneurotic oedema: two fatal cases after dental extractions. Br Med J 2. 1787. 1960.
131. WFTV. Family Upset After Relative Dies When Dentist Drops Tool Down Throat. June 20-21, 2008.
132. WKMG Local 9. Dentist Accused of Losing Tools Down Patient's Throat Before Death. June 20,23, 2008.
133. Belinda Kontominas. The Sydney Morning Herald. Dentist killed man with too much sedative, court told. June 11, 2008. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/dentist-killed-man-with-too-much-sedative-court-told/2008/06/10/1212863646369.html Accessed January 25, 2011
134. Geesche Jacobsen. The Sydney Morning Herald. Dental death blamed on training gaps. June 24, 2008. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/dental-death-blamed-on-training-gaps/2008/06/23/1214073151617.html Accessed January 25, 2011
135. Natasha Wallace. The Sydney Morning Herald. Trip to Dentist that Proved Fatal. July 4, 2006.
136. The Daily Star. Death at the dentist Woman dies soon after doctor pulls out her tooth. May 30, 2010. http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=140619 Accessed January 26, 2011
137. S. Yamazaki and et. al. abstract: An Analysis of 155 Cases of Cardiopulmonary Arrest in Dentistry. 2006.
138. John B. Roberson DMD and Chris M. Rothman DDS. Eye on Emergency. AGD Impact. vol. 36. issue. 6. June 2008.
139. U. Berzins, V. Volksone. Anesthesia Lethal Complications in Dentistry Practice. April, 2003. http://www.medline.ru/public/sudm/a2/art4-1.phtml Accessed January 27, 2011.
140. Lytle JJ, Stamper EP. 1988 Anesthesia survey of the Southern California Society of Oral and MaxillofaciaI Surgeons. J Oral MaxiIIofac Surg. vol. 47 pages 834-842. 1989.
141. Tomlin PJ. Death in outpatient dental anaesthesic practice. Anaesthesia. vol. 29. pages 551-70. 1974.
142. Coplans MP, Curson I. Deaths associated with dentistry and dental disease 1980–1989. Anaesthesia. vol. 48. issue 5. pages 435-438. 1993.
143. Hannah Chanpong and Anthony Ponce. NBC Chicago. Teen Dead After Root Canal Went in for a Filling. February 12, 2011. http://www.nbcchicago.com/news/local-beat/Teen-Dies-115910339.html Accessed February 19, 2011.
144. Virginia Breen. Girls' Death Eyed in Tooth-Pull Case. September 19, 1997. Accessed February 19, 2011.
145. Girl Dies After Trip to Dentist's Office. September 13, 2005.
146. Family Searching For Answers in Girl's Death. November 4, 2005.
147. M. C. Mehrotra. Cavernous sinus thrombosis with generalized septicemia : Report of a fatal case following dental extraction. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. vol. 19. issue 6. pages 715-719. June 1965.
148. Lydia Warren. Patient, 30, collapses and dies at dentist after 'suffering allergic reaction to mouthwash'. March 22, 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1368805/Sacha-Rumaner-allergic-reaction-mouthwash-dies.html Accessed March 24, 2011.
149. Selwyn Crawford. Fort Worth Bureau of The Dallas Morning News. Ex-dentist convincted in patients '89 death: Man died in office after fatal dose of sedatives. April 9, 1996.
150. Marie Joyce. Virginian Pilot. After Patient Dies, Panel Seeks License of Dentist. August 15, 1998. A1.
151. Daily Mail. Patient died in her bed hours after 'routine' teeth extraction at dental practice. April 29, 2009. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1172968/Patient-died-bed-hours-routine-teeth-extraction-dental-practice.html
152. Linda Shrieves. Winter Park dentist quits four years after dropped tool kills patient. May 21, 2011. orlandosentinel.com
153. The Whitehaven News. Mouthwash linked to death of patient, 63. February 16, 2011. http://www.whitehavennews.co.uk/news/mouthwash-linked-to-death-of-patient-63-1.809341 Accessed May 25, 2011.
154. David Reissner and Jenin Khanam. Charles Russel LLP. United Kingdom: Death At The Dentist. May 24, 2011. http://www.mondaq.com/article.asp?articleid=133104 Accessed May 25, 2011.
155. Nora Lopez. Mom says paramedics to blame in son's death: Officials probe why man not taken to hospital. The Dallas Morning News. November 4, 1993. 1A.
156. Tom Bailey Jr. The Commericial Appeal. Dentist Defends Job, Witness Says Lack of Action Doomed Patient. Febuary 23, 2001. A1.
157. Cindy Leise. The Chronicle-Telegram. 13-year old's dental death settled for $1 million. October 28, 2011.
158. Karen Voyles. The Gainesville Sun. October 28, 2011. Boy's death at dentist ruled accidental; no charges filed. http://www.gainesville.com/article/20111028/ARTICLES/111029551 Accessed November 2, 2011.
159. AAOMS. Office-Based Anesthesia Provided by the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon. White Paper. 2013.
160. Joe Goldeen. Boy's death baffles family. November 16, 2011. http://www.recordnet.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20111116/A_NEWS/111160317/-1/A_LIFE04
161. Star Ledger. Irvington dentist probed after 2nd child dies in his care. February 15, 2012. http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2012/02/irvington_dentist_probed_after.html
162. Koco News 5 ABC. Harrah Teen Dies Weeks After Having Root Canal. October 25, 2011.
163. Lawrence Journal World. Boy lapses into coma in dentist chair. May 14, 1993. 7C.
164. Couloures, Kevin G., et al. "Impact of provider specialty on pediatric procedural sedation complication rates." Pediatrics 127.5 (2011): e1154-e1160.
165. Hawaii News Now. Rich Meiers and Ben Gutierrz. January 4, 2014. " 3-year-old left brain dead after dentist visit dies." https://www.hawaiinewsnow.com/story/24362481/finley-boyle-3-brain-dead-after-dentist-visit-parents-file-lawsuit/ Accessed March 20, 2014.

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